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various text words including Science and Journal

Program News


Conference Presentations


Tusé D, Palmer KE, et al. (2017). Progress of Griffithsin development for first-in-human clinical trial (Plenary Lecture). Plant-Based Vaccines, Antibodies and Biologics (PBVAB), 5-7 June, Albufeira, Portugal.

Microbicide Trials Network Annual Meeting (2016), Bethesda, MD.  Palmer KE et al. "PREVENT Rectal Microbicide Program."




Alam A, Jiang L, Kittleson GA, Steadman KD, Nandi S, Fuqua JL, Palmer KE, Tusé D, McDonald KA (2018). Technoeconomic Modeling of Plant-Based Griffithsin Manufacturing. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 6:102. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2018.00102

Girard L, Birse K, Holm JB, Gajer P, Humphrys MS, Garber D, Guenthner P, Noël-Romas L, Abou M, McCorrister S, Westmacott G, Wang L, Rohan LC, Matoba N, McNicholl J, Palmer KE, Ravel J, Burgener AD. (2018). Impact of the griffithsin anti-HIV microbicide and placebo gels on the rectal mucosal proteome and microbiome in non-human primates. Scientific Reports 8(1):8059. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26313-8


Tyo KM, Duan J, Kollipara P, Dela Cerna MVC, Lee D, Palmer KE, Steinbach-Rankins JM (2018). pH-responsive delivery of Griffithsin from electrospun fibers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.04.013

Kim BM, Lotter-Stark HCT, Rybicki EP, Chikwamba RK, Palmer KE (2018). Characterization of the hypersensitive response-like cell death phenomenon induced by targeting antiviral lectin griffithsin to the secretory pathway. Plant Biotechnol J 16(10):1811-1821. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12917


Barton C, Kouokam JC, Hurst H, Palmer KE (2016). Pharmacokinetics of the Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin Administered by Different Routes Indicates Multiple Potential Uses. Viruses 8(12). doi: 10.3390/v8120331

Kouokam JC, Lasnik AB, Palmer KE (2016). Studies in a Murine Model Confirm the Safety of Griffithsin and Advocate Its Further Development as a Microbicide Targeting HIV-1 and Other Enveloped Viruses. Viruses 8(11). doi: 10.3390/v8110311


Grooms TN, Vuong HR, Tyo KM, Malik DA, Sims LB, Whittington CP, Palmer KE, Matoba N, Steinbach-Rankins JM (2016). Griffithsin-Modified Electrospun Fibers as a Delivery Scaffold To Prevent HIV Infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60(11):6518-6531. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00956-16

Millet JK, Séron K, Labitt RN, Danneels A, Palmer KE, Whittaker GR, Dubuisson J, Belouzard S (2016). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection is inhibited by griffithsin. Antiviral Research 133:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.07.011


Fuqua JL, Hamorsky K, Khalsa G, Matoba N, Palmer KE (2015). Bulk production of the antiviral lectin griffithsin. Plant Biotechnol J 13(8):1160-8. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12433

Fuqua JL, Wanga V, Palmer KE (2015). Improving the large-scale purification of the HIV microbicide, griffithsin. BMC Biotechnol 15:12. doi: 10.1186/s12896-015-0120-5

Barton C, Kouokam JC, Lasnik AB, Foreman O, Cambon A, Brock G, Montefiori DC, Vojdani F, McCormick AA, O'Keefe BR, Palmer KE (2014). Activity of and effect of subcutaneous treatment with the broad-spectrum antiviral lectin griffithsin in two laboratory rodent modelsAntimicrobial Agents and Chemother 58(1): 120-127. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01407-13

Nixon B, Stefanidou M, Mesquita PM, Fakioglu E, Segarra T, Rohan L, Halford W, Palmer KE, Herold BC (2013). Griffithsin prevents genital herpes in mice by preventing cell to cell spreadJ Virol 87(11): 6257-69. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00012-13


Hamorsky KT, Grooms-Williams TW, Husk AS, Bennett LJ, Palmer KE, Matoba N (2013). Efficient single tobamoviral vector-based bioproduction of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibody VRC01 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and utility of VRC01 in combination microbicidesAntimicrob Agents Chemother 57(5):2076-86. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02588-12

Férir G, Huskens D, Palmer KE, Boudreaux DM, Swanson MD, Markovitz DM, Balzarini J, Schols D (2012). Combinations of griffithsin with other carbohydrate-binding agents demonstrate superior activity against HIV Type 1, HIV Type 2, and selected carbohydrate-binding agent-resistant HIV Type 1 strains. AIDS Res Human Retrovir 28(11):1513-23. doi: 10.1089/AID.2012.0026

Meuleman P, Albecka A, Belouzard S, Vercauteren K, Verhoye L, Wychowski C, Leroux-Roels G, Palmer KE, Dubuisson J (2011). Griffithsin has antiviral activity against hepatitis C virusAntimicrobial Agents and Chemother 55: 5159-67.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.00633-11

Kouokam JC, Huskens D, Schols D, Johannemann A, Riedell SK, Walter W, Walker JM, Matoba N, O'Keefe BR, Palmer KE (2011). Investigation of Griffithsin’s interactions with human cells confirms its outstanding safety and efficacy profile as a microbicide candidatePLoS ONE 6(8): e22635. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022635


Férir G, Palmer KE, Shols D (2011). Synergistic activity profile of griffithsin in combination with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide against HIV-1 clade CVirology 417(2):253-8. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2011.07.004


Banerjee K, Michael E, Eggink D, van Montfort T, Lasnik AB, Palmer KE, Sanders RW, Moore JP, Klasse PJ (2012). Occluding the mannose moieties on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 with griffithsin improves the antibody responses to both proteins in miceAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28(2):206-14. doi: 10.1089/aid.2011.0101

O'Keefe BR, Giomarelli B, Barnard DL, Shenoy SR, Chan PK, McMahon JB, Palmer KE, Barnett BW, Meyerholz DK, Wohlford-Lenane CL, McCray PB Jr (2010). Broad-spectrum in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of the antiviral protein griffithsin against emerging viruses of the family Coronaviridae. J Virology 84(5):2511-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02322-09

O'Keefe BR, Vojdani F, Buffa V, Shattock RJ, Montefiori DC, Bakke J, Mirsalis J, d'Andrea AL, Hume SD, Bratcher B, Saucedo CJ, McMahon JB, Pogue GP, Palmer KE (2009).  Scalable manufacture of HIV entry inhibitor Griffithsin and validation of its safety and efficacy as a topical microbicide componentProc Nat Acad Sciences USA 106: 6099-104.  doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901506106

Emau P, Tian B, O'Keefe BR, Mori T, McMahon JB, Palmer KE, Jiang Y, Bekele G, Tsai CC (2007). Griffithsin, a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is an excellent candidate for anti-HIV microbicide. J Med Primatol. 2007; 36(4-5):244-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2007.00242.x

Ziółkowska NE, Shenoy SR, O'Keefe BR, McMahon JB, Palmer KE, Dwek RA, Wormald MR, Wlodawer A (2007). Crystallographic, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies of the mode of binding of oligosaccharides to the potent antiviral protein griffithsin. Proteins (2007); 67(3):661-70. doi: 10.1002/prot.21336

Ziółkowska NE, O'Keefe BR, Mori T, Zhu C, Giomarelli B, Vojdani F, Palmer KE, McMahon JB, Wlodawer A (2006).  Domain-swapped structure of the potent antiviral protein griffithsin and its mode of carbohydrate binding. Structure 14(7):1127-35. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2006.05.017

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